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2006 DNA Day Essay Contest Winners

Question 1:

Question 2:


 

Question 1: Why is it important for everyone to know about genetics?

 

First Place

Jocelyn Lam (12)
King's High School
Washington


Pierre Charron once said, “The true science and study of man, is man himself”. But what defines man? Scientifically speaking, beneath the thick layers of skin, muscles and cells another mechanism is at work that significantly determines the way we look, who we are and why we are the way we are: genes. Thus genetics, or the study of heredity and genes, is important because it enables us to develop an understanding about 1) the processes underlying heredity or the transmission of genes to subsequent generations 2) the structure and functions of DNA and chromosomes in the processes of heredity 3) genetic disorders and how they impact society and 4) genetic engineering as the future of biological science.


The impact of genes is evident in us and all around us, thus genetics plays a significant role in our daily lives. We all comment (and perhaps receive comments back) on the similarities between siblings and family members, traits that were passed down from generation to generation. Therefore, learning and understanding why these similarities are and how they are transmitted is within the realm of genetics that is visible in our day-to-day interactions. Secondly, many human disorders are caused by mutations, discrepancies in the DNA code or nondisjunction of chromosomes leading to abnormal chromosome count. The effects of these genetic disorders impact everyone. For patients, the genetic impact is obvious and for the rest of us, we must learn how to interact with these people whose difference was not their fault. In addition to disorders, diseases caused by viruses have a genetic basis. All of us have experienced the misery of a cold or perhaps even more serious illnesses. Knowing what goes on within our bodies gives us a greater appreciation for health and the biological processes that we often take for granted. Often, we do not give much thought to everyday functions of our body unless they never worked or until they stop working, thus understanding the genetics behind disorders and diseases gives us awareness and preparation to the problems that face us daily.


Understanding genetics is essential for today’s society, which now lives during what many consider as the “age of technology and science”. Nowadays, turning on the television and not hearing a single story on genetic breakthroughs, new viruses or treatments for genetic disorders is rare, and therefore reveals a science-conscious society. Right now on of the latest issues in science news is the avian flu and whether researchers have a vaccine in the case of a disastrous outbreak. Viruses are merely capsules of DNA or RNA, yet such simple entities remain highly complex and elusive, and require further understanding at this time by scientists and average people alike. Secondly, the technology and resources available to us now make genetics a necessary study for all people. Many career fields now especially in science, medicine and research utilize technology that relies on both practitioners and patients to have an understanding of their effects. Thus, understanding genetics is important now because of current events in science and career knowledge.


Potential growth in the field of genetics is certain for the future. Currently, genetic engineering is becoming the focus of research and experimentation, and its attraction to scientists will only continue to increase. In the future, we will be looking at new varieties of genetically modified crops and possibly transgenic organisms to feed the growing world population. They are already developing “golden” rice genetically infused with beta-carotene that can prevent blindness in countries where vitamin A is deficient in diets. In addition to increasing crop yield and plant nutrition through genetic means, genetic engineering and stem cell research may allow us to find more ways to rebuild organs, treat disorders, battle cancer and fight pathogens such as HIV. All of these are potential avenues for research today and uses of genetics in the future.


When Pierre Charron uttered the phrase: “True science and study of man, is man himself” in the 16th century, he most assuredly was not thinking in terms of DNA and genetics. However, in light of his statement five centuries later we find that man is in fact made up of genes, and within those genes instructions for everything man is, does and is capable of doing. At any point in time, we owe much of who we are to our permanent genetic blueprint of life.

References:

Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. 6th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. 397-399.

"Pierre Charron Quotations." Memorable Quotations.com. 5 March 2006.

 

 

National DNA Day commemorates the completion of the Human Genome Project in April 2003 and the discovery of the double helix of DNA in 1953.
 
Each year ASHG and its partners organize a variety of events that help K-12 students, teachers, and the public learn more about how genetics and genomics affect their lives.

 


 

Second Place

Jeffrey Tseng (11)
Montgomery Blair High School
Maryland

 

To this day I do not know how to pronounce my name for anyone who poses the question. Should I go with the accurate, zheng? Perhaps I should settle with the Americanized sang. God forbid people start saying tee-seng or something equally ridiculous. The truth is, I am 17 years old and I have yet to discover who I truly am. Maybe the secret to self-discovery must come from within, quite literally. Closely guarded by the extraordinary machine that is genetics, countless strands of DNA cradle the very mysteries of our existence.


When most people think of genetics, they immediately recall Mendel and pea plants that seem to have no relevancy to modern science. However, genetics spans fields far beyond its classical beginnings. Behavioral genetics, clinical genetics, molecular genetics, genomics, and ecological genetics are all major areas of study with relevant applications today. Increasingly, scientists find genetics as the root of explanation for almost all the natural phenomena that occur in the biological world.


Our past, present, and future are invariably tied with our genetic makeup. To understand genetics is to understand oneself. To say, “I have blue eyes like my father,” is merely to recognize a snowflake on the tip of the iceberg. We all know that our height and our hair color is influence by genetics, but this is just a superficial understanding of the big picture. Information and even revelations of the utmost significance can be extracted from the chromosomes of a single cell. The examination of BRCA genes can determine susceptibility for cancer. Amniocentesis procedures can scan children for genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities long before they are even born. Even more controversial is the debate over the existence of a gene for alcoholism, violence, and hatred. As humans, we have never been satisfied with “just because.” Why and how are the questions that we all intrinsically ask. Genetics is indisputably a source of many of the answers we seek.


In the future, the mechanisms behind genetics will allow us to develop an understanding, and even come to terms with, the diversity that exists in our world. While so much hatred has stemmed from the fundamental variety of the human race, it seems as though nature planned for it this way. Genetic mechanisms clearly advocate diversity as a means of creating stable and successful species. Beneficial mutations in DNA, chromosomal mechanisms, sexual reproduction, and gene flow are all natural devices meant to maintain diversity in populations. If all humans were essentially clones of each other, they would run the risk of being completely wiped out by an unusually chilly morning. Genetics have allowed human beings to become the complex and cunning creatures that they are today.
The implications of genetics cannot be ignored when advancements including stem cells and genetic engineering have untapped potential to save millions of lives. Despite the ethical repercussions surrounding genetic research, humans have a right to know about the sciences that may one day save their lives. Degenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s, cancers, and even aging can theoretically be combated by stem cell therapies. While many critics find these treatments unnatural and unnecessary, it would be unreasonable to rob the public of the possibilities that stem cells offer. Those who shun genetics and its inherent advantages run the risk of hypocrisy because its emergent benefits can help everyone.


Who are we? What are we capable of? Between Darwin’s Origins of Species, and the completion of the Human Genome Project, extraordinary progress has been made. Yet as nature intended, perhaps we will never know the full extent of our abilities or the truth behind our inchoate beginnings. Despite all our technological innovations, some answers will forever remain out of reach. But to look within ourselves for solutions will continue to bring us ever closer to the truth.

 


 

Third Place

Alexander Long (11)
Worthington Kilbourne High School
Ohio

 

Arteriovenous malformation in the right cerebellum, polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, scoliosis, dyslexia: these are all conditions I have been diagnosed with, that I have dealt with or am dealing with on a daily basis. Each is considered "congenital". Which of these might be eliminated or cured through DNA research? Most likely all. I want a better easier life for my children. I hope they will have far fewer health and genetic issues than I have had. DNA research can accomplish this and much more. Everyone needs to understand the great potential of genetics and DNA to solve disease and health issues.

Although modern medicine produces occasional miracles, and we are all living longer, there is still a long way to go to understand the workings of the human body in health and disease. Consider how many still die every year of cancer and heart disease, or those who suffer from various autoimmune diseases and degenerative diseases that have no know cause or treatment. If we understood the human body better, we would likely make such suffering a thing of the past.

What are the missing pieces of the puzzle in curing cancer or heart disease? DNA holds the answers. We need to pursue a complete understanding of that which controls the activities of the cell including the genes in the nucleus. How do they regulate regeneration, cell death, and participate in adaptation, survival, and evolution? Everyday we hear of major discoveries in the field of genetics. We have learned that in the proper conditions genes can be coaxed to do many amazing things: transform a cell into any kind of cell (stem cells), regenerate lost or damaged cells (GDNF for neurons), be used to produce necessary bioactive products (genetically engineered plants) or used to produce models of disease for study ( transgenic mice). It seems likely that mastery of genetics is what has been missing in the quest to cure disease.

Mapping the human genome (and other animal and plant genomes) was an amazing first leap towards the coming revolutionary era in medicine and biotechnology. The new era will mean more than curing disease. Society will be transformed. Important issues will need to be addressed: what are the problems of someone owning the rights to a gene and its products? How do we prevent genetic discrimination? When do we decide that it is ok to regenerate a heart or replace our muscles or grow new nerve cells? What about the potential for living far beyond our eighties and nineties and creating new populations of elderly who are dependent on genetics to keep them going? Would we need to redefine death? Can we come to a consensus on when there is life? How about the inevitable and terrible disparity between the availability of treatments for those in the wealthier nations and the millions elsewhere in the world? There will also be questions about cloning. The ethical questions will be many, complex and difficult to address.

The potential conflict with religious belief will continue to simmer. Not surprisingly, the science of genetics appears to conflict with religious beliefs. Both attempt to answer the question “how”. One example is the debate over Intelligent Design. The remarkable similarity of the genome of all animals and the way the genetic fingerprint has changed over time is strong evidence in support of the theory of evolution. Yet this theory conflicts with the biblical story of creation. Does this mean we teach Intelligent Design instead? (this has actually been proposed). A second example is the restrictions on stem cell research. Stem cells offer great potential to cure disease, yet the US government has imposed restrictions on the study of embryonic stem cells for research, chiefly on religious grounds that life occurs at conception. This may be a matter of faith for some, but other denominations disagree, defining the onset of life at a later stage of development. These tensions will continue.

I embrace this new era. I prefer to live in a world in which we have greater control of our destiny. We in the United States should be at the forefront of this revolution. I think it is futile to try to restrict scientific discovery. How can we resist truth or mandate against curiosity and exploration which are the essence of humans? Critical to handling the upcoming transformation in our lives and to addressing the inevitable conflicts on the way is for each of us to understand the fundamentals of the science of DNA and genetics.

 


 

Question 2: If you were a genetics researcher, what would you like to study (and why)?:

 

First Place

Alaina K. Hahn (9)
Tualatin High School
Oregon

 

I’m a walking genetic disorder. Why? Because I have a rare condition called Alagille Syndrome (AGS). It is a complex multisystem disorder that affects about 1 in 90,000 children, and causes abnormal development of many organs in the body such as the liver, heart, kidneys, face, and blood vessels.

One classic symptom of AGS is very few bile ducts inside the liver, which causes little or no passage of bile into the small intestine, malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins and nutrients, and severe itching. The itching is horrible, like being covered in mosquito bites and trying to itch them all at the same time, without it doing any good. People with AGS often have trouble gaining weight and growing, and most have a heart murmur or other problems with their heart and lungs. It’s not much fun having AGS and not something I want to pass on to my children.
A genetic mutation or deletion on chromosome 20 in the JAG1 protein causes a problem in the Notch signaling pathway, causing cells to get the wrong message during fate determination, and this causes the abnormal development characteristic of AGS. It’s very complicated, but the key thing to remember is that a problem in the JAG1 protein causes abnormal development of organs and body systems very early in human development.

It is also important to know that AGS is autosomal dominant. This means that it only takes one parent who is a carrier to pass AGS on to a child, unlike other disorders where both parents must be carriers. In many cases the parent has no idea s/he is a carrier until their child is born with AGS. The bummer is that often the child has more severe symptoms than the parent. The parent doesn’t even have to carry the gene for a child to be born with it – as many as 50-70% of children born with AGS have a de novo (new) mutation or deletion. Scientists don’t know what causes this to occur. For someone like me who knows how tough it is to live with, the odds of passing AGS on make it an extremely difficult decision whether to have biological children. I don’t want my children to be burdened with all the problems AGS causes.

There is at least a 50% chance that my children will be born with AGS. Prenatal testing is possible if the mutation has been identified in one parent, which is terrific. The problem is that, although testing can determine whether or not the fetus has inherited the JAG1 mutation, it cannot predict the severity of the disorder in the child. Outcomes range from life-threatening liver or heart disease to only mild manifestations that don’t affect daily living. This means that if I were to become pregnant, prenatal testing could tell me whether my child would have AGS, but it wouldn’t tell me what organs or systems would be affected or how severely.
Knowing what I do about AGS, if I were a genetic researcher there are several questions I’d want to investigate, most importantly:

  • If the mutation or deletion in JAG1 is the same for members of one family, why is it different for other families?
     

  • Why is the severity of symptoms so unpredictable if members of one family all have the same mutation or deletion?
     

  • I know my chance of my having a child with AGS is 50/50, but if my child is born with AGS how severe will it be for them?

Researchers are studying the AGS gene, trying to identify modifying factors, and looking for answers, but I want to see more done and much sooner. If I were a genetic researcher, I’d plunge right into the nuances of this complex condition and see if I couldn’t find some answers. I’d roll up my sleeves and start taking medical histories, blood samples, and DNA profiles of families affected by AGS. From this I could construct pedigrees and study the subtle differences in mutations to see if any patterns emerge, which would help me predict if my, or someone else’s children would have AGS and how severely they would be affected.

I’m 15, a walking genetic disorder, and it won’t be long before I have to decide whether or not to have children. I want to know what my options are so I can decide between testing the odds and having biological children or being cautious and adopting. Genetic research is the key to finding some answers.

References:
Alagille Syndrome: (AGS). Perf. Nancy B. Spinner (Ph.D.) and Ian D. Krantz (M.D.). 2004. DVD. Digestive Care Inc., Alagille Syndrome Alliance, 2004.
The Alagille Syndrome Alliance. Alagille Syndrome In The Classroom. Vol. 1. Bethlehem, PA: Digestive Care Inc., Alagille Syndrome Alliance, 2004. 1 vols.
Hahn, Cindy L. Personal Interview. 26 Mar. 2006.
The Alagille Syndrome Alliance. Alagille Syndrome and the Alagille Syndrome Alliance. Vol. 1. Tualatin, OR: Cindy L. Hahn, 2005. 1 vols.
Spinner (Ph.D.), Nancy B., Ian D. Krantz (M.D.), and Binita M. Kamath (M.D.). "Alagille Syndrome." GENETests. 18 Feb. 2005. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. 28 Mar. 2006

 


 

Second Place

Lauren Kennedy (12)
Archmere Academy
Deleware

 

Neurofibromatosis, a genetic disorder that affects thousands of individuals, has always interested me due to my relationship with my younger cousin, Matthew. Matthew has struggled from neurofibromatosis throughout his life, battling through hearing loss with the use of sign language and undergoing countless surgeries, including two seven-hour surgeries on his spine, before even reaching adolescence. However, Matthew continually bears a smile on his face. Despite his overwhelming condition, he remains vivacious and full of life. He and his family remain optimistic that researchers may develop a cure that will help Matthew and the innumerable other individuals suffering from neurofibromatosis. Therefore, if I were a genetics researcher, I would strive to find a cure for neurofibromatosis.
This autosomal dominant disorder results from a mutated gene and consists of two common classifications: neurofibromatosis 1, which occurs in one out of every four thousand births, and neurofibromatosis 2, which occurs in one out of every forty thousand births. Various symptoms of NF1 include café-au-lait spots, deformation and enlargement of bones, scoliosis, and, in half of patients, learning disabilities. Some cases of NF1 result in neurofibromas, or tumors, in the brain, on cranial nerves, or on the spinal cord. Indications of NF2 involve hearing loss, poor balance, tinnitus (ringing noise in the ear), and bilateral tumors on the eighth cranial nerve (“NINDS” online).
Research on neurofibromatosis has led to successful treatments and valuable information that may lead to a cure. Doctors frequently rely on surgical intervention to reform various symptoms of neurofibromatosis. Orthopedic surgery, for example, may effectively correct pseudoarthrosis and scoliosis, while plastic surgery can remove some skin tumors. Finally, neurosurgery is often necessary to prevent brain or spinal tumors from developing (De Basio 4). Because of the high risk involved in neurosurgery, however, older patients or patients in poor health may have specific tumors treated with x-ray treatments or radiation therapy (“Vestibular” online).


Likewise, research on neurofibromatosis provides hope for a new treatment or cure. In 1987, Barker and Seizinger assigned the NF1 gene to chromosome 17 by linkage to DNA markers in family studies and the NF2 gene to chromosome 22 by analysis of tumor DNA and family studies. In 1990, White and Collins cloned the NF1 gene and discovered that the product of this gene is a complex protein called neurofibromin. Similarly, three years later, Gusella cloned the NF2 gene and produced the protein merlin (Gorski 4). Later studies expanded on these findings and determined the roles of these proteins. The neurofibromin protein mirrors a family of guanosine triphosphatase-activating proteins, which serve a significant role in tumor suppression. Scientists believe this similarity suggests that neurofibromin acts in the development of neurofibromas, such that a defect in the gene could limit or eliminate the output of this protein, resulting in irregular cell growth. Scientists theorize that merlin serves a very similar role in tumor suppression (“NINDS” online). This information allows scientists to delve deeper into the makeup of the neurofibromatosis genes to uncover new insights into the treatment of mutated genes.


I believe that research towards finding a chemical or pharmacologic treatment may be the most valuable path towards a cure. While the available treatments prove effective, they only resolve parts of the disorder. Likewise, numerous drugs have been discovered that can aid certain symptoms of the disorder, but no such drug has provided a cure. For example, the learning problems often resulting from NF1 have been linked to Ras, a protein that regulates how brain cells communicate. The NF1 mutation leads to hyperactive Ras and inevitably disrupts cellular communication (Vogel online). To overcome the link between NF1 and learning problems, a class of cholesterol drugs called statins has been approved by the FDA (Schmidt online). Another established drug, fumagillin, slows brain tumor growth, as proven using culture mouse brain cells by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine (“Nerve” online). With continued research into the pharmacologic field, I strongly trust that a cure can be discovered, as demonstrated by the credible progress already made.


Finding a pharmacologic cure would be a blessing for Matthew and his family, as well as the thousands of individuals suffering from neurofibromatosis. With new treatments and therapies developing annually, additionally conducted research only aids in the pathway towards a cure. While a cure remains elusive, scientists maintain hope that further research will make it inevitable. As neurofibromatosis remains one of the most dominant genetic disorders of our world, the cure could benefit not only thousands of lives today, but also millions of lives tomorrow.

References:
De Basio, William, Bruce Korf, and Robert Martuza. Neurofibromatosis: Questions and Answers. New York: National Neurofibromatosis Foundation, 1997.
Gorski, Jerome. “A History of Neurofibromatosis (cont.).” Neurofibromatosis 15.2 (1994): 4, 10.
“Nerve Tissue: Methionine Aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP2) - New Therapeutic Target in Neurofibromatosis 1.” Neurofibromatosis, Inc. 2005. 7 Jan. 2006 .
“NINDS Neurofibromatosis Information Page.” National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 2006. 4 Jan. 2006 .
Schmidt, Elaine. “UCLA Scientists Recreate Flowers for Algernon with a Happy Ending; Discover Statins Overcome Gene Mutation.” Neurofibromatosis, Inc. 2005. 7 Jan. 2006 .
“Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma) and Neurofibromatosis.” NIDCD: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. 2004. 4 Jan. 2006 .
Vogel, Kristine S., et al. “Mouse Tumor Model for Neurofibromatosis Type 1.” Science Magazine. 286.5447 (1999): 2176-2179. 2 Jan. 2006.

 


 

Third Place

Laura Neese (12)
St. John Villa Academy
New York

 

"Feed the World With a Grain of Rice”

Consider this food for thought: right now an estimated one billion people around the world are suffering from hunger (Hungersite). Now imagine that you hold in your hand a single grain of rice. That tiny grain may hold the key to ameliorating present and future global hunger issues.

In 2005 an international collaboration of scientists published the complete genomic sequence of the rice species Oryza Sativa (IRGSP). Through the clone-by-clone method, data was gathered and pooled to order rice’s 400 million DNA bases in creating a complete, 99.99 % accurate gene map (IRGSP). This paramount achievement makes it easier for scientists to identify rice genes involved in expression of specific beneficial phenotypes, and apply that knowledge to create hardier, higher yielding, and more vitamin rich GM (genetically modified) varieties. Already, genes associated with flowering, resistance to crop diseases, sunlight requirements, and grain yield have been identified for Oryza Sativa (BBC). If I were a geneticist I would want to be involved in using agricultural biotechnology to develop GM Oryza varieties to bolster food production in hunger stricken areas. Ag-biotech research involving rice is intriguing to me because it offers tremendous opportunities to make a positive humanitarian impact and opens exciting avenues for research and technology development.

Rice is an extremely important crop; it ranks among the top three most cultivated agricultural products in the world (Travers 2: 1022). It is the staple food crop for more than half of the world’s population, accounting for well over 50% of the total caloric consumption in Thailand, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Indonesia (Federoff 2). Current patterns indicate that by 2025, a staggering 4.6 billion people will be heavily reliant on rice (BBC). According to agricultural economists, rice production must increase by 20% within the next thirty years to meet demands, which, many believe to be an impossible feat without “tinkering with genes”(TIGR; McFadden). Therefore, the development and introduction of new and stronger Oryza varieties could have far-reaching positive effects.


As a geneticist, I would want to address farmers’ losses due to insects and disease. The integration of genes, linked to pest and disease resistance, into rice DNA could greatly increase the yield harvested and consumed by people. The insertion of genes associated with a lower H2O dependency into host rice DNA could create plants with the ability to survive droughts like those that devastated the Asian rice crop during the 1997-98 El Nino (McFadden). Drought-resistant crops could prove essential to improving cultivation in dry climates, and in areas undergoing climate changes.

Beneficial genes for insertion need not be restricted to rice’s own genome. For example, in 1999 Ingo Potrykus invented a rice strain which produced Beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, by integrating sunflower genes into Oryza Sativa DNA using Agrobacterium (Federoff 4). The development of this so-called “golden rice” represents an important milestone in ag-biotech research. It exemplified the combination of genes from different species for the primary goal of benefiting the public.


The rice gene map is called the “Rosetta Stone for crop genomes” due to its extensive co-linearity with its evolutionary cousins: corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, and sugar cane(TIGR). It provides a reference that will expedite the sequencing of these other vital food crops. The inter-transferring of important genes among these organisms could lead to the development of superior varieties of these staples.

While biotechnology springs forward in leaps and bounds, concerns over nutritional safety, and ecological and social ramifications from the introduction of GM foods have also grown. Uncertainties over interactions between foreign and host genes, possible allergic reactions and long term health risks make some consumers wary of GM products (Teitel 11). It is feared that GM crops could eliminate populations of “natural” varieties thus disrupting surrounding ecosystems, and that unchecked genetic drift would alter the natural course of evolution (DeSalle 154). Some farmers worry that elite biotech companies will wield too much control over agriculture resulting in “corporate serfdom” (Ho). These and other mounting concerns will challenge scientists as agricultural-biotechnology progresses into the 21st century.

The sequencing of the rice genome holds immense promise for revolutionizing agriculture as we know it. It facilitates the mapping of other cereals, which will contribute to the development of wholesome new varieties of this crucial crop. Efficient and ethical distribution of GM strains, taking relevant concerns into account, could help stabilize the global food supply. These remarkable possibilities show that a grain of rice can truly feed the world!

References:

“Agricultural Plants.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. Bridget Travers. 6 vols. New York: Gale 1996
DeSalle, Rob and Micheal Yudell. Welcome to the Genome: A User’s guide to the Genetic Past, Present, and Future. Hoboken: Wiley-Liss, 2005.
Federoff, Nina V., and Nancy Marie Brown. Mendel in the Kitchen: A Scientist’s View of Genetically Modified Foods. Washington D.C.: Joseph Henry-National Academies, 2004.
Ho, Mae-Wan, and Joe Cummins. “Significance of the Rice Genome” Rice GD: Genome Database of Chinese Super Hybrid Rice. 2001. Beijing Genomics Institute Biological Database & Application Group. 22 Mar. 2006
The Hunger Site. CharityUSA.com. 2006. 25 Mar. 2006.
“International Research Team Announces Finished Rice Genome.” TIGR: The Institute for Genomic Research. 10 Aug. 2005. 22 Mar. 2006
McFadden, Johnjoe. “Sowing the Seeds of a Better Future”. The Guardian. Apr. 24, 2002. Rice GD: Genome Database of Chinese Super Hybrid Rice. 2001 Beijing Genomics Institute Biological Database & Application Group. 22 Mar. 2006
“Rice Genome Unraveled at Last.” BBC News 10 Aug. 2005. 25 Mar. 2006
Teitel, Martin and Kimberly A. Wilson. Genetically Engineered Food: Changing the Nature of Nature. Rochester, VT: Park Street-Inner Traditions International, 2001.
“The World’s No. 1 Food Crop is Now Completely Sequenced.” IRGSP: International Rice Genome Sequencing Project. 31 Aug. 2005. 22 Mar. 2006
 

 

 

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