Parente2: A Fast and Accurate Method for Detecting Identity by Descent. S. Bercovici, J. M. Rodriguez, L. Huang, S. Batzoglou Computer Science, Stanford, Stanford, CA., Select a Country.

   Identity-by-descent (IBD) inference is the problem of establishing a direct and explicit genetic connection between two individuals through a genomic segment that is inherited by both individuals from a recent common ancestor. IBD inference is key to a variety of population genomic studies, ranging from demographic studies to linking genomic variation with phenotype and disease. The problem of both accurate and efficient IBD detection has become increasingly challenging with the availability of large collections of human genotypes and genomes: given a cohorts size, as quadratic number of pairwise genome comparisons must be performed, in principle. Therefore, computation time and the false discovery rate can also scale quadratically. To enable practical large-scale IBD detection, we developed Parente2, a novel method for detecting IBD segments. Parente2 is based on an embedded log-likelihood ratio and uses an ensemble windowing approach to model complex linkage disequilibrium in the underlying studied population. Parente2 is applied directly on genotype data without the need to phase data prior to IBD inference. Through extensive simulations using real data, we evaluate Parente2s performance. We show that Parente2 is superior to previous state-of-the-art methods, detecting pairs of related individuals sharing a 4 cM IBD segment with 99.9%; sensitivity at a 0.1%; false positive rate, and achieving 79.2%; sensitivity at a 1%; false positive rate for the more challenging case of pairs sharing a 2 cM IBD segment. Additionally, Parente2 is efficient, providing one to two orders of magnitude speedup compared to previous state of the art methods. Parente2 is freely available at