Inferences about human history and natural selection from 280 complete genome sequences from 135 diverse populations. S. MALLICK1,2,3, D. REICH1,2,3, Simons Genome Diversity Project Consortium 1) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2) Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Boston, MA, USA; 3) Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, USA.

   The most powerful way to study population history and natural selection is to analyze whole genome sequences, which contain all the variation that exists in each individual. To date, genome-wide studies of history and selection have primarily analyzed data from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays which are biased by the choice of which SNPs to include. Alternatively they have analyzed sequence data that have been generated as part of medical genetic studies from populations with large census sizes, and thus do not capture the full scope of human genetic variation. Here we report high quality genome sequences (~40x average) from 280 individuals from 135 worldwide populations, including 45 Africans, 26 Native Americans, 27 Central Asians or Siberians, 46 East Asians, 25 Oceanians, 46 South Asians, and 71 West Eurasians. All samples were sequenced using an identical protocol at the same facility (Illumina Ltd.). We modified standard pipelines to eliminate biases that might confound population genetic studies. We report novel inferences, as well as a high resolution map that shows where archaic ancestry (Neanderthal and Denisovan) is distributed throughout the world. We compare and contrast the genomic landscape of the Denisovan introgression into mainland Eurasians to that in island Southeast Asians. We are making this dataset fully available on Amazon Web Services as a resource to the community, coincident with the American Society of Human Genetics meeting.