Capture of 390,000 SNPs in dozens of ancient central Europeans reveals a population turnover in Europe thousands of years after the advent of farming. I. Lazaridis1,2,*, W. Haak3,*, N. Patterson2, N. Rohland1,2, S. Mallick1,2, B. Llamas3, S. Nordenfelt1,2, E. Harney1,2,4, A. Cooper3, K. W. Alt5,6,7, D. Reich1,2,4 1) Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2) Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA; 3) Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, University of Adelaide, Australia; 4) Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5) State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt and Heritage Museum, Halle, Germany; 6) Center of Natural and Cultural History of Teeth, Danube Private University, Krems-Stein, Austria; 7) Hightech Research Center, University of Basel and Integrative Prehistory and Archaeological Science, Basel University, Switzerland.

   To understand the population transformations that took place in Europe since the early Neolithic, we used a DNA capture technique to obtain reads covering ~390 thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a number of different archaeological cultures of central Europe (Germany and Hungary). The samples spanned the time period from 7,500 BP to 3,500 BP (Early Neolithic to Early Bronze Age periods) and most of them were previously studied using mtDNA (Brandt, Haak et al., Science, 2013). The captured SNPs include about 360,000 SNPs from the Affymetrix Human Origins Array that were discovered in African individuals, as well as about 30,000 SNPs chosen for other reasons (that are thought to have been affected by natural selection, or to have phenotypic effects, or are useful in determining Y-chromosome haplogroups). By analyzing this data together with a dataset of 2,345 present-day humans and other published ancient genomes, we show that late Neolithic inhabitants of central Europe belonging to the Corded Ware culture were not a continuation of the earlier occupants of the region. Our results highlight the importance of migration and major population turnover in Europe long after the arrival of farming. * Contributed equally to this work.

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