Genetic influence on LpPLA2 activity at baseline as evaluated in the exome chip-enriched GWAS study among ~13600 patients with chronic coronary artery disease in the STABILITY (STabilisation of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY) trial. L. Warren1, L. Li1, D. Fraser1, J. Aponte1, A. Yeo2, R. Davies3, C. Macphee3, L. Hegg3, L. Tarka3, C. Held4, R. Stewart5, L. Wallentin4, H. White5, M. Nelson1, D. Waterworth3 1) GlaxoSmithKline, Res Triangle Park, NC; 2) GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, UK; 3) GlaxoSmithKline, Upper Merion, Pennsylvania, USA; 4) Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 5) 5Green Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland Cty Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.
STABILITY is an ongoing phase III cardiovascular outcomes study that compares the effects of darapladib enteric coated (EC) tablets, 160 mg versus placebo, when added to the standard of care, on the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in subjects with chronic coronary heart disease (CHD). Blood samples for determination of the LpPLA2 activity level in plasma and for extraction of DNA was obtained at randomization. To identify genetic variants that may predict response to darapladib, we genotyped ~900K common and low frequency coding variations using Illumina OmniExpress GWAS plus exome chip in advance of study completion. Among the 15828 Intent-to-Treat recruited subjects, 13674 (86%) provided informed consent for genetic analysis. Our pharmacogenetic (PGx) analysis group is comprised of subjects from 39 countries on five continents, including 10139 Whites of European heritage, 1682 Asians of East Asian or Japanese heritage, 414 Asians of Central/South Asian heritage, 268 Blacks, 1027 Hispanics and 144 others. Here we report association analysis of baseline levels of LpPLA2 to support future PGx analysis of drug response post trial completion. Among the 911375 variants genotyped, 213540 (23%) were rare (MAF < 0.5%). Our analyses were focused on the drug target, LpPLA2 enzyme activity measured at baseline. GWAS analysis of LpPLA2 activity adjusting for age, gender and top 20 principle component scores identified 58 variants surpassing GWAS-significant threshold (5e-08). Genome-wide stepwise regression analyses identified multiple independent associations from PLA2G7, CELSR2, APOB, KIF6, and APOE, reflecting the dependency of LpPLA2 on LDL-cholesterol levels. Most notably, several low frequency and rare coding variants in PLA2G7 were identified to be strongly associated with LpPLA2 activity. They are V279F (MAF=1.0%, P=1.7e-108), a previously known association, and four novel associations due to I1317N (MAF=0.05%, P=4.9e-8), Q287X (MAF=0.05%, P=1.6e-7), T278M (MAF=0.02%, P=7.6e-5) and L389S (MAF=0.04%, P=4.3e-4). All these variants had enzyme activity lowering effects and each appeared to be specific to certain ethnicity. Our comprehensive PGx analyses of baseline data has already provided great insight into common and rare coding genetic variants associated with drug target and related traits and this knowledge will be invaluable in facilitating future PGx investigation of darapladib response.
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