Admixture between Ashkenazi Jews and Central Europeans. W. Klitz1,2, L. Gragert3, M. Maiers3, M. Fernandez-Viņa4, Y. Ben-Naeh5, G. Benedek6, C. Brautbar6,7, S. Israel7 1) Pub Hlth, Univ California, Berkeley, CA; 2) Public Health Institute, Oakland, CA; 3) National Marrow Donor Program, Minneapolis, MN; 4) University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; 5) Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel; 6) Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel; 7) Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.

   When distinct populations inhabit the same geographic space, culture often acts to restrict random mating in our species, while at the same preventing complete genetic privacy. The residency across Central Europe by the Ashkenazi Jews over the last thousand years is such a case. HLA typing from bone marrow donor registries in Israel, Poland and Germany were utilized to measure admixture between central European host populations and Ashkenazim. Inferred high resolution HLA A-B-DRB1 haplotype frequencies were generated from each population. A total of 1,676 Polish-origin-Ashkenazim and 13,556 Polish haplotypes were analyzed, along with a similar sample of ~5 million German haplotypes. The informativeness of HLA haplotypes is shown by the A-B-DRB1 haplotype 0101-0801-0301, the most common haplotype found in northern Europe. HLA B*0801 bearing haplotypes are present in the Near East, but those B*0801 haplotypes carry the HLA C allele Cw*0702 instead of the Cw*0701 found in 0101-0801-0301. The 100 most common haplotypes constituted 53% of the total Ashkenazi, and 45% of the Polish, and 43% of the German samples, reflecting the sizeable total fraction of very rare haplotypes familiar in population samples of the diverse HLA system. The most common Ashkenazi haplotype had a frequency of 6.14% (n = 102.9) and the 100th haplotype was present at 0.29% (n = 4.86). Comparable values for the Polish sample were 5.83% (n = 790.3) and 0.13% (n = 17.6), respectively. Haplotypes from one population compared to those haplotypes in a second could be classified into three categories: less frequent, statistically identical or more frequent. In the graph of the ordered 100 Polish haplotypes, the less frequent Ashkenazi haplotypes supply a possible signature of admixture from the Poles into the Polish Ashkenazim, while the haplotypes more frequent in Ashkenazim than Poles are candidates for movement of genes from the Ashkenazim to the Poles. The averaged frequency differences between these categories give an indication of population admixture. The analysis showed that 1.8% of Polish haplotypes may be of Ashkenazi origin and 0.6% of Ashkenazi of Polish origin. The sample from Germany, in which the initial generations of Polish-Ashkenazi history was spent, was useful in demonstrating consistency of haplotype frequencies by rank order. The results show clear evidence of admixture occurring in both directions between two largely HLA-distinct populations.